Arizona child labor laws regulate the ages, the times, and the types of work minors 17 years and younger may perform in Arizona. Generally, youth who are 16 and 17 years old may work in a broad range of jobs, but cannot work in jobs that Arizona has deemed are too hazardous. Youth who are 14 and 15 years old may work in a broad range of jobs but are significantly limited in the number of hours per day and per week they may work, especially when school is in session. Children 13 years old or younger may not work in Arizona, except in some limited situations. The law regarding child labor under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and as enforced by the Wage and Hour division of the United States Department of Labor may also apply. The detail of Arizona’s child labor laws and regulations are discussed below.
- What are the Arizona child labor laws for 16 and 17-year-olds?
- What are the Arizona child labor laws for 14 and 15-year-olds?
- May minors request variations from Arizona child labor laws?
- What are the minimum wage and overtime rules for minors?
- Does Arizona provide any exemptions to the minor labor laws?
- Is there an exception for newspaper carriers?
- Do federal child labor laws apply to minors working in Arizona?
- Are there any penalties for violating Arizona child labor laws?
What are the Arizona child labor laws for 16 and 17-year-olds?
Arizona child labor laws have provisions specifically directed to 16 and 17-year-olds, including restrictions on what jobs or occupations they may perform. For more information, visit our Arizona Child Labor laws – 16 and 17 year olds page.
Arizona child labor laws have provisions specifically directed to 16 and 17 year olds, including restrictions on jobs or occupations they may perform. Arizona child labor laws prohibit employers from employing 16 and 17 year old youth in the following hazardous occupations, unless a variance is granted:
- manufacturing or storing explosives, except in retail establishments where the youth does not handle explosives other than prepackaged small arms ammunition (ammunition not exceeding .60 caliber in size, shotgun shells, or blasting caps)
- explosives include ammunition, black powder, blasting caps, fireworks, or any substance or combination of substances commonly used for the purpose of detonation and which, on exposure to any external force or condition, is capable of a relatively instantaneous release of gas and heat
- motor vehicle driver or outside helper, except when driving is incidental to the youth’s employment, the youth has a valid driver’s license, and either total driving time does not exceed two hours per day or twenty-five per cent of the work period per day, or the total mileage driven each day is less than fifty miles
- a motor vehicle includes an automobile, truck, truck tractor, trailer, semitrailer, motorcycle, or similar vehicle propelled or drawn by mechanical power and designed for use as a means of transportation; it does not include a vehicle operated exclusively on rails
- an outside helper is a person who rides on a motor vehicle other than in the driver or passenger compartment for the purpose of transporting, loading, or unloading items
- mine or quarry occupations
- mines and quarries include underground or surface rock or mineral extracting, placer, dredging, or bore-hole operations including all grinding and metal mills, washer plants, and any other cutting, crushing, grinding, screening, sizing, washing, or cleaning operation performed on extracted rocks or minerals
- logging occupations, which include:
- felling timber, bucking, or converting timber into logs, poles, piles, ties, bolts, pulpwood, chemical wood, excelsior wood, cordwood, fence posts, or similar products
- collecting, skidding, yarding, loading, transporting, and unloading such products
- constructing, repairing, and maintaining roads, railroads, flumes, or camps used in connection with logging, moving, installing, rigging, and maintaining machinery or equipment used in logging
- operation of a sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or cooperage stock mill in connection with the storing of logs and bolts, converting logs or bolts into sawed lumber, laths, shingles, or cooperage stock and storing, drying and shipping lumber, laths, shingles and cooperage stock or other products of such mills
- working with power-driven woodworking machines, including operation, setup, repair, adjustment, oiling, and cleaning a power-driven woodworking machine is a fixed or portable machine or tool driven by power and used or designed for cutting, shaping, forming, surfacing, nailing, stapling, wire stitching, fastening, assembling, pressing, or printing wood or veneer
- work involving exposure to radioactive substances and to radiation in excess of 0.5 rem per year
- radition means ionizing radiation including gamma rays, x-rays, alpha and beta particles, high speed electrons, neutrons, protons, and other nuclear particles or rays
- radioactive material includes solid, liquid, or gaseous material or materials that spontaneously emit radiation
- working with power-driven hoists with capacity exceeding one ton or an elevator, except operation of an automatic elevator incidental to employment
- a power-driven hoist is an apparatus for raising or lowering a load by the application of a pulling or pushing force including a crane, derrick, or forklift; it does not include an elevator or an automatic elevator
- elevator means a power-driven hoisting or lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction; it does not include dumbwaiters
- automatic elevators include passenger or freight lifts operated by push buttons so that starting, moving, leveling, holding, and opening and closing doors is completely automatic
- working with power-driven metal working, forming, punching, or shearing machines which change the shape of or cuts metal by means of dies, rolls, knives, or similar tools which are mounted on rams, plungers or other moving parts; it does not include machine tools
- slaughtering, meat packing, processing or rendering of meat, or working with power-driven meat processing machines, including operation, setup, repair, adjustment, oiling, or cleaning
- power-driven meat processing machines include meat patty forming machines, meat and bone cutting saws or knifes, head splitters, guillotine cutters, snout pullers, jaw pullers, skinning machines, horizontal rotary washing machines, casing cleaning machines, grinding, mixing, chopping, and hashing machines and meat presses
- working with power-driven bakery machines, which include horizontal or vertical dough mixers, batter mixers, bread dividing, rounding, or molding machines, dough brakes, dough sheeters, combination bread slicing and wrapping machines, cake cutting band saws, cookie machines, or cracker machines
- working with power-driven paper products machines, which include platen die-cutting presses, platen printing presses, punch presses which involve hand feeding of the machine, arm-type wirestitchers or staplers, circular or band saws, corner cutters or mitering machines, corrugating and single or double-lacing machines, envelope die-cutting presses, guillotine paper cutters or shears, horizontal bar scorers, laminating or combining machines, sheeting machines, scrap paper balers or vertical slotters, or other machine used in the remanufacture or conversion of paper or pulp into a finished product.
- manufacturing clay construction product or silica refractory products
- clay construction products include brick, hollow structural tile, sewer pipe, refractories, architectural terra cotta, glazed structural tile, roofing tile, stove lining, chimney pipes and tops, wall coping and drain tile
- silica refractory products are items produced from raw materials and containing free silica as their main constituent
- working with power-driven saws
- wrecking, demolition, and ship-breaking, which includes all work, including cleanup and salvage work, performed on or at the site of the total or partial razing, demolishing, or dismantling of a building, bridge, steeple, tower, chimney, other structure, motor vehicle, ship, or other vessel
- roofing or working with equipment attached to or placed on roofs, including:
- all work performed in connection with the application of weatherproofing materials and substances, including tar, pitch, asphalt, prepared paper, tile, slate, metal, translucent materials, and shingles of asbestos, asphalt or wood, to roofs of buildings and other structures
- all work performed in connection with installation of roofs, including related metal work, and alterations, additions, maintenance, and repair including painting and coating of roofs
- excavating or tunneling, except manual excavation, backfilling, or working in trenches or other penetrations of the ground surface that do not excced two feet in depth at any time
These restrictions do not prohibit youth 16 years old and older from operating power-driven lawn and yard care equipment not connected with retail, food service, and gasoline service establishments. Additionally, youth 16 years and older may work in the offices performing clerical work where prohibit work is performed so long as the youth is not exposed to the hazardous conditions of the prohibited work. AZ Statute 23-235
What are the Arizona child labor laws for 14 and 15-year-olds?
Arizona child labor laws have provisions specifically directed to 14 and 15-year-olds, including restrictions on what times during a day 14 and 15-year-olds may work, how many hours in a week they may work, and what jobs or occupations they may perform. The restrictions on the employment of 14 and 15-year-olds under Arizona’s child labor laws are discussed below.
What days, times, and hours can 14 and 15-year-olds work?
Arizona child labor laws restrict the hours an employer may employ 14 and 15-year-old minors during a workday and workweek. The restrictions are as follows:
- while school is in session:
- no more than 18 hours in one week
- no more than 3 hours in one day
- no later than 9:30 p.m. on the day before and not earlier than 6:00 a.m. on any day school will be in session
- solicitation sales or door-to-door deliveries may not be performed after 7:00 p.m. on the day before any day school will be in session
- while school is out of session:
- no more than 40 hours in one week
- no more than 8 hours in one day
- no later than 11:00 p.m. on the day before and not earlier than 6:00 a.m. on any day school will not be in session
- solicitation sales or door-to-door deliveries may not be performed after 7:00 p.m. on the day before any day school will not be in session
In what hazardous occupations are 14 and 15 year olds prohibited from working?
Arizona child labor laws prohibit employers from employing youth who are 15 years old and younger in the occupations listed for 16 and 17-year-olds as well as the following additional occupations unless a variance is granted:
- manufacturing, which includes designing, assembling, fabricating, producing, constructing, or preparing a product or part of a product before sale or use
- processing, which includes activities involving an addition to, subtraction from, change in, or cleaning of any food or foodstuff including filleting fish, dressing poultry, or cracking nuts
- laundering or dry cleaning in a commercial laundry
- warehousing, which includes loading, unloading, storing, or otherwise moving any item or items to and from trucks, railroad cars, conveyors, and buildings
- construction includes building, altering, repairing, adding to, subtracting from, improving, moving, wrecking, or demolishing a building, highway, road, railroad, excavation or other structure, project, development or improvement, including the erection and use of scaffolding or a similar structure and providing mechanical or structural service for a structure, project, development, or improvement
- boiler, furnace, or engine rooms
- working from ladders, scaffolds, window sills, or similar structure or place more than five feet in height, including window washing
- the following activities in retail food or gasoline service establishments:
- maintaining or repairing machines or equipment, except work in connection with cars and trucks if confined to dispensing gasoline and oil, courtesy service, car cleaning, washing and polishing, but not including work involving the inflation of any tire mounted on a rim equipped with a removable retaining ring
- cooking and baking, except at soda fountains, lunch counters, snack bars, or cafeteria serving counters
- setting up, adjusting, cleaning, oiling, or repairing power-driven food slicers, grinders, choppers, and cutters
- preparing of meats for sale, except wrapping, sealing, labeling, weighing, pricing, and stocking
- the following agricultural activities:
- operating a tractor over twenty power take off horsepower that is not equipped with a rollover protective structure and seatbelts
- connecting or disconnecting an implement or any of its parts to or from a tractor over twenty power take off horsepower
- operating, including starting, stopping, adjusting, feeding, or any other activity regarding physical conduct associated with the machines, a:
- corn picker
- cotton picker
- grain combine
- hay mower
- forage harvester
- hay baler
- potato harvester
- mobile pea viner
- feed grinder
- crop dryer
- forage blower
- auger conveyor or self-unloading wagon
- power post hole digger
- power-driven nonwalking rotary type tiller
- trencher or earthmoving equipment or potato combine
- working in a pen occupied by:
- a bull, boar, or stud horse maintained for breeding purposes
- a sow with young pigs
- a cow with a newborn calf
- felling, bucking, skidding, or unloading timber with butt more than six inches in diameter
- picking or pruning from a ladder over eight (8) feet in height
- riding on a tractor as a helper
- driving a bus, truck, or automobile
- working inside:
- a fruit storage area or grain storage area designed to retain an oxygen deficient or toxic atmosphere
- an upright silo within two weeks after silage has been added
- a manure pit
- operating a tractor for packing purposes in a horizontal silo
- handling hazardous agricultural chemicals
- hazardous agricultural chemicals include any substance that has a toxicity level that requires manufacturer or distributor labeling as category I, category II and category III toxicity in accordance with the regulations adopted by the administrator pursuant to the federal environmental pesticide control act of 1972
- handling explosives
- transporting, transferring, or applying anhydrous ammonia
These restrictions do not prohibit youth 14 years old and older from operating power-driven lawn and yard care equipment not connected with retail, food service, and gasoline service establishments. Additionally, youth 14 years and older may work in the offices performing clerical work where prohibit work is performed so long as the youth is not exposed to the hazardous conditions of the prohibited work. AZ Statute 23-235
May minors request variations from Arizona child labor laws?
Employers may apply for variations from Arizona child labor law restrictions on occupations for 14 to 17-year-olds by submitting a written application to the Arizona Industrial Commission. The application must contain the following information:
- the name and address of the employer
- the name and title of the person filing the application
- the name and date of birth of the youth seeking employment
- the name and address of the school the youth is attending if the person is attending school
- the address of the place of employment
- the type of business
- a specific description of the variation, modification, or renewal sought
- a statement detailing how the granting of the variation would be in the best interests of the youth seeking employment and the community
- a statement indicating any training the youth has received in the proposed employment, including a copy of certification of successful completion of any training program
- the maximum hours to be worked in the employment on a daily and weekly basis
- the wage scale and the method and timing of payment of wages
- a statement of how the safety, health, and personal well-being of the youth will be protected
- the name of the youth’s immediate supervisors and the frequency of supervision
- the approval of the parent or guardian
The director of the Arizona Industrial Commission conducts an investigation based on the application and informs an employer by mail whether the variation has been granted. If the Arizona Industrial Commission grants the variation, the employer must retain a copy of the variation at the place of employment of the minor for whom the variation was acquired. If the variation is denied, the employer may request a hearing for reconsideration. AZ Statute 23-241
What are the minimum wage and overtime rules for minors?
Information regarding Arizona’s minimum wage laws for minors may be found on our Arizona Minimum Wage Laws page.
Does Arizona provide any exemptions to the minor labor laws?
Arizona child labor laws exempt the following youth from its minimum age requirements for hazardous occupations:
- youth who are employed by a parent, grandparent, bother, sister, aunt, uncle, first cousin, or stepparent, including relatives of the same degree through marriage or adoption or in loco parentis, so long as the family member owns at least 10% of the business and is actively engaged in the daily operation of the business, so long as the youth is not 15 years old or younger and engaged in manufacturing or mining
- youth who work as child performers in motion pictures, theatrical, radio, or television productions, so long as the production company provides the Department of Labor of the Arizona Industrial Commission with the name and address of the person, the length, location, and hours of employment and any other information required by the department before the production begins
- youth enrolled in career education programs
- youth enrolled in vocational or technical training school programs as set forth in AZ Statute 15-781 and 791
- youth working as apprentices and registered by the bureau of apprenticeship and training of the US Department of Labor in accordance with the established standards
- youth trained under either the 4-H federal extension service or the United States office of education vocational agriculture training programs, if employed outside school hours on the equipment for which they have been trained
- youth who have completed vocational or career education programs approved by the Department of Education if the programs are directly related to the prohibited occupation or employment or if working in the prohibited occupation is part of the vocational or career education program
- youth who are married
- youth who have a high school diploma or its equivalent
Is there an exception for newspaper carriers?
Youth as young as 10 years old may sell or offer for sale newspapers, magazines, or periodicals in any street or public place. AZ Statute 23-234
Do federal child labor laws apply to minors working in Arizona?
When provisions of both Arizona child labor laws and federal law are applicable, the employer must abide by the law that provides the youth employees the greatest protection. AZ Statute 23-242
Are there any penalties for violating Arizona child labor laws?
Cease and desist order
If the Arizona Industrial Commission has reasonable cause to believe an employer is in violation of Arizona child labor laws, it may serve on the employer a cease and desist order informing the employer of the act that violates the law and the employer’s right to a hearing. The cease and desist order will include a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 against the employer who is accused of violating Arizona child labor laws. AZ Statute 23-236
Employers who are found to have violated Arizona child labor laws are guilty of a class 2 misdemeanor. AZ Statute 23-239